[The following sermon is taken from volume IV:234-290 of The Sermons of Martin Luther, published by Baker Book House (Grand Rapids, MI, 1983). This sermon was printed as early as 1522 under the title: A Sermon Lately Preached by Dr. Martin Luther, on the Extent of the Influence of the Holy Gospel Had Over Church Councils. It also appeared in the collections of 14 sermons, 27 sermons and “The Five Beautiful Sermons” in 1923. The pagination from the Baker edition has been maintained for referencing. This e-text was scanned and edited by Dr. Richard P. Bucher, it is in the public domain and it may be copied and distributed without restriction.]
Christ’s Warning of False Prophets
Part I. The Foundation and Reason of This Warning
1. As the Lord in the three previous chapters, the 5th, 6th, and 7th, explains the commandments of God, he finally concludes with these words, “Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should to you, do ye even so to them,” v. 12. This is a Christian doctrine, and the sum and total of Christianity. Immediately follows this Gospel lesson, in which the Lord exercises the office of a good shepherd and teacher, and warns us to beware of false prophets. As though he would say, Now you have heard the truth, from henceforth therefore beware of other doctrines. For it is certain that false teachers and false prophets will arise wherever this Word is preached.
2. We must boldly consider the two kinds of doctrine, the true and good, and the false and erroneous, and that they will always accompany each other, for thus it has been from the beginning, and thus it will continue to the end of the world. Hence it will not do for us to creep along in silence, and resort to a safe and secure manner of life. The evil teachings of men and the doctrines of devils, and all our enemies oppose us without ceasing, and hence we dare not think that the issue is settled. We are not yet across the river. Therefore the Lord diligently warns us and says:
“Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.”
II. The Warning Itself
3. We should well consider this passage, for Christ our Lord here commands and gives all Christians the power to be judges of all doctrine, and he gives them power to judge what is right and what is not right. It is now well on a thousand years that this passage has been perverted by false Christians, so that we have had no power to judge, but had to accept what the Pope and the councils determined, without any judgment of our own.
4. Now this Gospel here overthrows the very foundation of popery and of all councils, for we are not bound to keep what the Pope commands and men decree. Therefore I say again, firmly grasp what this Gospel teaches, for the authority has never been given either to the Pope or councils, or anyone else, to sit and determine what is faith. For Christ says: “Beware of false prophets.” Either the Gospel lies, or the Pope and the councils do. Christ says we have the right to judge all doctrines, and whatever is proposed for us to keep or to reject. Here the Lord does not speak to the Pope, but to all Christians. And as the doctrine is proclaimed to all: “Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do even so to them;” so likewise the words exclude no one: “Beware of false prophets.” From which it clearly follows that I may indeed judge of the doctrine.
5. Hence I can say: Pope, you together with the councils have resolved, and now I have to decide whether I may accept it or not. Why? Because you will not stand and answer for me when I die, but I must see to it myself how I stand before God, so that I may be certain of my fate.
6. For you must be so certain in regard to the matter, that it is God’s Word, as certain and more certain than you are that you are living, for on this alone your conscience must rest. Even though all men should come, yea, even the angels and all the world and pass a resolution, if you cannot grasp it and decide for yourself, you are lost; for you dare not base your decision on the Pope or anyone else; you must yourself be prepared so that you can say: this God says, and that he does not say; this is right, and that is wrong, otherwise it is not possible for you to stand.
7. For when you are about to die, and you rely on the Pope and the councils and say: The Pope said this, the councils have resolved that, the holy fathers Augustine and Ambrose have thus determined, then the devil can easily put a hole in your drum and insinuate: What if this were false? What if they had erred? And when such a temptation enters your mind, you are already overcome. For this reason you must act conscientiously, so that you can boldly and defiantly say: This is God’s Word, on this I will risk body and life, and a thousand necks, if I had so many.
This St. Peter also means when he says in his first Epistle 4:11: “If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God.” And St. Paul says in 1 Cor. 2:3-5: “And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling; and my speech and my preaching was not with the enticing words of men’s wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power; that your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.”
8. Then they began to say: Yes, but how can we know what is God’s Word, and what is right or wrong? This we must learn from the Pope and the councils. Very well then, let them conclude and say what they please, yet I will reply, you cannot put your confidence in that nor thus satisfy your conscience, for you must determine this matter yourself, for your very life depends upon it. Therefore God must speak to your heart: This is God’s Word; otherwise you are undecided.
9. But our bishops, Caiaphas, Pilate and Herod insist upon it and rage so terribly, that a person must think them insane. They bring forth St. Augustine’s declaration: I would not believe the Gospel, if the honor of the church did not move me; and think they have already won. Then you answer: What does it concern us whether St. Augustine or Jerome, St. Peter or St. Paul, or even the archangel Gabriel from heaven, who is still greater, said it; yet it will profit me nothing, for I must have God’s Word, I will only hear what God says.
10. And God commands this Word to be told you through men, and especially has he permitted it to be proclaimed and written for you by the Apostles; for St. Peter and St. Paul do not preach their own word, but God’s Word, as Paul himself testifies in 1 Thess. 2:13: “When ye received the Word of God which ye heard from us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the Word of God, which effectually worketh also in you who believe.” Surely, a person can preach the Word to me, but no one is able to put it into my heart except God alone, who must speak to the heart, or all is vain; for when he is silent, the Word is not spoken. Hence no one shall draw me from the Word which God teaches me.
Of this I must be as certain as two and three make five, for this is so certain, that if all the councils would say otherwise, I know they lie. Again, that a yard is longer than a half a yard is certain, even though all the world denied it, I still know that it cannot be otherwise. Who shall determine this for me? No one but the truth alone, which is entirely and wholly certain, that no one can deny it.
11. Therefore you must come so far as to say: This is true, no man shall persuade me differently. When you hear: Thou shalt not kill; and again: Thou shalt do to others as you would have them to do you; then you must know in the face of all councils, that this is the teaching of Christ, although all men said otherwise. So also this doctrine: You cannot help yourself, but Christ is you Savior, who has obtained for you the forgiveness of your sins; this you must know and confess in your heart that it is true; and if you are not conscious of it, then you have no faith, and the Word only hangs about your ears and swims on your tongue like foam on the water, as Hosea the prophet says, 10:7, “As for Samaria, her king is cut off as the foam upon the waters.” All this you must now believe, not as a word that Peter preached, but that God has commanded you to believe. All this I say therefore, in order that we may return to the Gospel and observe where the foundation has its source, that ye must be judges, and have the power to judge over all things that are offered you; hence I can and dare not build on any man, for I must answer for myself when death comes.
12. Consequently do not allow yourselves to be persuaded that you must believe what the Pope says or the councils decree. When you know God, then you have the proper rule of judgment, the measure and rule by which you can judge all doctrines of the fathers; namely, when you know that Christ is your Savior, who rules us sinners. So when one now comes and says: You must become a monk, and do so and so, if you want to be saved, for faith alone is not sufficient for salvation; then you can truly and assuredly say: You lie, your doctrine is false; for whoever believes in Christ shall be saved. Who teaches you this? Faith in your heart, which believes this alone and nothing else. Therefore no one can beware of false doctrine unless he be spiritual. For Paul says this in 1 Cor. 2:15: “But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man.” So no one can judge false doctrine, but the spiritual man.
13. Hence it is very foolish for the councils to wish to determine and establish what a man must believe, when there is often not a single man present who ever tasted the least of the divine Spirit. So it was in the Council of Nice, when they undertook to enact laws for the spiritual orders that they should not marry, which was all false because it has no foundation in the Word of God. Then a single man arose, by the name of Paphnutius, and overthrew the whole affair and said: Not so, that is not Christian. Then the entire council, in which undoubtedly were many distinguished and learned individuals, were compelled to drop the resolution, and give way to this simple and honest man. For God is a great enemy to high titles and human wisdom, hence he allows them at times to be handled roughly, and puts them to shame in their speculations, that the truth of the proverb may appear: The learned are the most perverted.
14. Thus we are to remain free judges, to have the power to decide and judge, to accept or reject everything that Pope establishes and the councils determine. But when we accept anything, we should so accept it, that it harmonizes with our faith and the Scriptures; and not just because the Papists say it. This St. Paul teaches in Rom. 12:7, Whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith.” For all prophesy based on works, that does not lead to Christ alone as our only comfort, precious as it may be, is not according to the proportion of faith; as for instance to rely upon the revelations of hobgoblins, the mass, pilgrimages, fastings, and the merits of the saints.
Even here so many holy fathers have erred like Gregory, Augustine and others, in that they taken from us this right of judgment, for this torment and misery began far back in history, that we must believe the Pope and the councils. Hence you must be able to say: God said this, and that God has not said. As soon as you say: A man has said this, or the councils have determined that, then you are building on sand.
15. Hence there is no judge upon the earth in spiritual things concerning Christian doctrine, except the person who has in his heart the true faith, whether it be a man or woman, young or old, maid or servant, learned or unlearned. For God is no respecter of persons, since all are alike precious to him, who live according to this commandments, Acts 10:34, hence they alone have the right to judge.
16. But if one should come who knew the sense of the Word better than I, then I should close my mouth and keep still, and receive knowledge from him. This is what St. Paul desires in speaking to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 14:29-30: “Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the others judge. If anything be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace.” That is to say, if the hearer knows and understands more than the preacher, then the preacher should allow him the privilege to speak, and he should hold his peace. In the worldly government of course the rule holds, that the older is wiser than the younger, a learned man than a layman; but in spiritual things a child or a servant, a common woman or man can have the grace of God as well as an old person or a lord, a priest or the Pope. To sum up, let no learned person take from you the right to judge, for you have this right as well as he.
17. Now let me tell you who the false prophets of our times are. For no one can judge or know this unless he has the Spirit. But the brief summary is, though much may be said on the subject, it is the Pope with his entire government; for they all have taught what is opposed to God. A lengthy proof of this is not necessary, for you can observe this nearly everywhere you turn. Yet we will give a few examples. God commands in Exodus 20:12: The child shall honor father and mother and be subject unto them. But the Pope has approved the view that a monk or a nun is no longer under their father, and says: The child is now under spiritual dominion and in the service of God; God is more than father and mother; hence it is no longer bound to serve father and mother, and the father is bound to call it a nobleman by grace.
18. Well, when I ask, what is the service of God? they reply: Dear Sir: It is the ringing of bells; lighting of candles; putting on beautiful robes for the celebration of mass, and more such similar monkey tricks. Yes, indeed, you have surely hit the mark! But I say to honor father and mother and to keep God’s commandments, that is to serve God. Therefore you must say here that Antichrist has taught such things, and boldly say and declare he lies. Do you not see here how God’s commandment is opposed to the obedience of priors and abbots? God gave you father and mother that you should honor them, serve them and be subject to them. The Pope gives you another, whom you must honor more than the father God has given you. If this is keeping God’s commandment, I do not know what it is.
19. And so it is further with the other commandments of God. Thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not hate or be angry. This God has commanded. But the Pope teaches thus: A man must defend the property of the clergy and the treasures of the church, and if he cannot do it, he shall call to his aid the sword of the civil government to protect the papal chair and St. Peter’s inheritance. Behold, thus these commandments are opposed to each other, which I hope every one easily understands. So also in regard to the married state.
20. God commanded, Gen. 2:24, that man and wife should be one flesh, and that no man should put them asunder. Now the Pope has given many commandments contrary to this. For instance, when a woman takes a husband who is not baptized, the marriage is to be dissolved.
21. Then again when those in spiritual orders marry, they are to dissolve their marriage, according to the demands of their order. Again, if any one falls into the sin of incest and marries either her friend or any of his friends, the Pope commands that they must stay together, yet both must live chaste together. Here he lets the two sexes lie naked in bed together, and neither shall have the right to require of the other the duties of married life. This is nothing else than putting the straw and fire together, and then forbidding them to burn.
22. God says further: Thou shalt not steal. But who steals more than the Pope and his servants? They are the greatest thieves, because they appropriate unto themselves daily all the treasures of the world.
23. Again, look at the first commandment, which says that we should trust in God alone, and call upon him alone. But their entire doctrine is nothing else than to lead us to trust in human works, and to command us to call upon the saints. Do you not see that such people are the real false prophets, of whom we must beware? For they abolish the commandment which God has given. Now follows the other part of this Gospel where Christ speaks thus:
“Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.”
24. As I said before, no one knows others by their fruits, except he who is spiritually born again. Therefore, he who has not the Spirit, cannot have this knowledge. Let no on think that he can know this from the fruits unless he be spiritual. The fruit by which we are to know them is unbelief. One can know them to some extent by open sins, yet this judgment is deceptive, for Christians also fall.
25. Hence, the true fruit by which they are known is an inner fruit, here I must have the Holy Spirit and judge according to his guidance. The fleshly eye and reason are not sufficient. You may see two persons go the Lord’s Supper, the one is a believer, the other not, and yet their external work is the same. What then makes the difference? Faith in the heart and unbelief, because the one regards it as a good work, the other not. In short, from external works you can decide nothing. Tauler also acknowledged that believers and unbelievers were often so similar in external appearance, that no one could distinguish them, no is reason able to judge unless we have the Spirit of God. Yea, the unbelievers often appear far more excellent in their works than believers, as it is written in Job 39:13: “Givest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks? or wings and feathers unto the ostrich?” Yet the peacock can fly and the ostrich cannot. So also the believer and unbeliever are indeed similar to each other in their external appearance, but in their hearts they are quite different.
[Note: In a later sermon on this text, Luther wisely changed his interpretation of “By their fruits you shall know them.” In this sermon he says in paragraph #24, ” The fruit by which we are to know them is unbelief” and in paragraph #25, “In short, from external works you can decide nothing.” But in the latter sermon (early 1530’s) he says, “So stick to the principle that bearing good fruit refers to the kind of life and good works that are in agreement with the Word and the commandment of God” (Luther’s Works 21:261). This is a good change because faith or unbelief are invisible and cannot be observed whereas Christ’s words, “You shall know them by their fruits” assume that we can tell who the false prophets are by observing something visible. Faith in the heart cannot be seen by us, but behavior, good works, and one’s public confession of faith (my addition) can be seen, observed and evaluated . .
26. However, by the fruits of the Spirit true prophets are known, which fruits St. Paul mentions to the Galatians, 5:20: “Love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance.” Yet these fruits no one can see or know without the Holy Spirit. For this reason the decision and judgment of spiritual things should not be based on external things, as on the work and person, but on the inner condition of the heart. One knows another indeed by his fruits, but only in the Spirit. The fruits and good works do not make any one good or pious; but he must first be good and pious at heart. As the apples do not make the tree, for the tree must first be there before the fruit.
27. If I understand this, then I notice there is no work so bad that it will necessarily condemn a man, nor none so good that it will save him. But faith alone saves us and unbelief alone condemns us. For one to commit adultery, the deed does not condemn him, for the adultery only shows that he has fallen from the faith, this condemns him, otherwise it would not be possible. Nor does anything make one good in faith, but nothing makes one wicked but unbelief. Therefore our Lord also says, that the tree shall be cut down. He does not say that the fruit shall be cut down. Thus the works of love do not make me good, but faith alone, in which I do these works and bear this fruit.
28. Thus we must begin with faith. But the Pope begins with works, and commands persons to do good works that they may become good. Just as if I should say to the tree: If you want to be a good tree, then begin and bear apples. Just as though I could bear apples before I was an apple tree. But I must say: If you want to bear apples, then begin and be an apple tree. Hence the tree must be there before it can produce fruit.
29. From all this it follows now that there is no sin on earth except unbelief, as Christ says in John 16:8-9: “And the Holy Ghost, when he is come, will convict the world in respect of sin, because they believe not on me.”
Second Sermon: Matthew 7:15-23.
This sermon first appeared in a separate tract entitled: A Sermon Giving Warning to Beware of False Prophets.
1. Two reasons why God sends among us divisions and sects. 2. The two-fold call
to the ministry. 3. How we should in three ways prove and examine the spirits.
Martin Luther, Wittenberg, 1525. Printed, at Wittenberg by George Rhaw, 1525. N.
B. It appears probable that this is the sermon which Luther preached on his
journey occasioned by the peasants’ war, according to the testimony of Lingke
(see history of Luther’s Journeys, p. 156), on Monday after Miserl. Dom., May
1st, 1525, in the church a Wallhausen, near Eisleben, on the text Mat. 7:15-23:
“Beware of false prophets.”
The pagination from the Baker edition has been maintained for referencing. This e-text was scanned and edited by Paul W. Meier. It is in the public domain and it may be copied and distributed without restriction.
EIGHTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY.
1. Christ our Lord preached this part of the Gospel in concluding his long sermon on the mount. After teaching his disciples all things necessary for them to know, he concludes by warning them against false prophets, as all good ministers are accustomed to do in closing their sermons, exhorting the people to abide in the true doctrine, and to beware of false teachers. As Paul also did when he departed from Ephesus, saying among other things: “Take heed unto yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Ghost hath made you bishops, to feed the church of the Lord, which he hath purchased with his own blood. I know that after my departing grievous wolves shall enter in among you, not sparing the flock; and from among your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them. Wherefore watch ye, remembering, that by the space of three years, I ceased not to admonish everyone night and day with tears.” Acts 20:28-31.
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2. Thus time and again, in all his Epistles, he adds an admonition, that they should beware of false teachers and false Apostles, as Peter also warns us in his second Epistle, 2:1-3: “But there arose false prophets also among the people, as among you also, there shall be false teachers, who shall privily bring in destructive heresies, denying even the Master that bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction. And many shall follow their lascivious doings, by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of. And in covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you: whose sentence now from of old lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not.” So there shall at all times be false prophets and teachers.
3. In this manner also Christ here proceeds. Having finished his sermon he’ warns and admonishes his disciples and the people, ever to hold fast to what he told them, and watch that they be not misled by false teachers, and says: “Beware of false prophets.”
4. In the first place we perceive from this that we must be prepared, because it will always happen, that after the true ministers come the false ones; yea, they will indeed even enter along side of them and mingle with them. What other need was there that Christ should so faithfully warn us, saying: Beware, take care; if he had known that the doctrine would always remain pure? Therefore he warns us to be assured that we will have false prophets, and does this especially in closing this sermon. We have a similar example in the book of Judges 2:10, when they had died, whom God gave the people as teachers and judges, who knew what the will of God was, what was acceptable and not acceptable to him, then immediately the people of Israel began to turn from God and his Word. One worshiped this idol, another that, and they were divided into factions so that they fell from the true doctrine, and departed from the ways of their fathers.
5. So it happened in the days of the Apostles. Then the church was still pure, but as soon as they died
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who held fast to the pure doctrine, then came the false prophets and the evil spirit, who desired to change everything, as the Epistles of St. Paul sufficiently show. And inasmuch as this is so, and as we can expect nothing else, Christ our Lord warns us here as a faithful shepherd and bishop should, that we beware, so that, when the Gospel comes, that we hold firmly to it and not depart from it though it cost our life and our treasures. For it cannot be otherwise, as the time passes than that there will be changes.
6. Thus it will also happen with us. God be praised; we, as well as other cities, now have the Gospel in all its richness and purity, as men have never had it since the times of the Apostles. But as soon as we and others, who now assist in preaching it, are no longer with you, you will have other and false preachers, for they already begin to make their appearance. May the Lord consume them with the Spirit of his mouth. 2 Thess. 2:8. And blessed are they, who in accordance with our Gospel lesson will be diligently on their guard and will not believe every wind of doctrine, but will remain constantly firm in what they have learned. This Christ teaches first by the word, “Beware,” be warned, as though he would say : You certainly are now in possession of it.
7. Here you may say: Why does the Lord do this? Why does he permit false prophets to come among the faithful, and follow the true ministers? Is he not strong and powerful enough to prevent it, so that the Gospel might remain pure and in all its force? Verily, he could indeed do this; but he does not, and for this reason, that he might prove those who are his, and punish the unthankful. For St. Paul says, 1 Cor. 11:19: “For there must be also factions among you, that they that are approved may be made manifest among you;” that is, in order that those whose faith has been proved may become known, so that their spirit and word may appear and find a field of influence.
8. Since God gives us his Word, his Spirit and his gifts, he does not want us to be lazy, sleepy or idle. For if you
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have the true Word and the right understanding of it, the world will rise to oppose you. Then, on the other hand, the devil will labor to tear you from it, so that not only the tyrants of the world will persecute it with the sword, but also our own reason and the wisest heads in the world, in order that God may exercise you in his Word, and give work to the Spirit whom he has bestowed upon you, that you may learn that God’s wisdom is more excellent than the wisdom of this world, and that God’s strength is stronger than the strength and power of this world, which you will not be able to learn without a struggle like this.
9. When God permits a faction to oppose thee, he would thereby stir thee up, saying: Defend yourself, grasp firm hold of the Word and test God’s wisdom and the powers of his Word, and learn how great is the folly of this world. Thus the power and wisdom of God’s Word will become manifest, that you may learn that it cannot be conquered by human power and wisdom; but that it will conquer all power, and put to shame all knowledge and wisdom, in order to awaken the truth and to show forth what is right, that the people may experience it. This is one reason God sends divisions and sects among us, who crowd in edgewise, as though they were useful and served to make the Word, the truth and spirit better and clearer; however in other respects, divisions and sects do harm.
10. Another reason is to punish the unthankful, who will not accept the Word, lest they be converted and saved, as Christ says to the Jews in John 5:43: “I am come in my Father’s name, and ye receive me not; if another shall come in his own name, him ye Will receive.” And as St. Paul says, 2 Thess. 2:10-11: “Because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this cause God sendeth them a working of error, that they should believe a lie; that they all might be judged who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.”
11. Thus severely God punishes this sin which we regard so lightly, for he. punishes it with blindness and error, which are the greatest sins on earth. Men regard it as a
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small matter, that we now again have the Gospel by God’s grace. For how many are there who ever thank God for it? We forget it, cast it to the winds and become lazy and careless. It is approved by none; no one tastes it; no one lifts up his hands in thankfulness to God for it. We are so very richly overloaded with the Gospel that we become satiated ith it, and St. Paul has rightly prophesied, 2 Tim. 4:3·4: “For the time ill come when they will not endure the sound doctrine; but, having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts and will draw away their ears from the truth, and turn aside unto fables.”
12. Here and there throughout the whole Scriptures we see how greatly it offends God, who regards it as the greatest sin when his Word is despised; which is so dear and precious, that it cost him the blood of his own dear Son, and we cast it to the wind as though it were of little importance. For this reason he sends us the severest calamities, which cannot be compared to the present calamity now going on in the world, that during and after the peasants’ war so many have been slain, of which there seems to be no end, for who knows when it will cease? Yet all this is but playwork in comparison to the misfortune when men are hardened, blinded and misled by false prophets, by which heaven is closed against them and hell opens to receive them, and everlasting life is lost forever. What does it matter, as die we must at any rate, if we are killed by the sword? But that the soul should be forever given to the devil, this is an eternal calamity, an everlasting misfortune and torment.
13. I would gladly prevent it, if I could, by preaching, praying and writing. Now God has begun to visit us with the temporal and bodily calamity of the sword, but a far greater plague will come when the Holy Gospel is taken away from Germany. Then false teachers will be sent and will come to us. One will teach this, the other that. Then the kingdom of heaven will be locked up, and the false preachers will not allow it to be opened. On this account it
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would indeed be well worth while for us to pray earnestly. But our hearts are cold, for our walls are not yet on fire. Nevertheless, the devil intends to drown all Germany in blood and take away the Gospel, unless he be prevented and hindered by the prayers of pious Christians.
14. When the devil saw he could not accomplish anything by the Pope and his false apostles, he now begins to rage through the peasants and the rebels, and will entirely take the Gospel from us and make us its enemies, and afterwards cut off our heads and cast our souls into hell. For this reason I give warning, that we should not think so little of this matter but open our eyes, not regarding it merely as the word of a man. It is a precious Word, and if we sleep and snore and do not keep awake to hear it, we need not be angry when he strikes us on the head by sending us false prophets, but remember that we have richly deserved it.
15. Already there are but few who stand steadfastly. Sectarianism is rampant, and few there be who contend against it and preserve the true doctrine; their names could all be written on a little card. What shall come to pass when once it breaks out with force? Therefore let no one consider it child’s play, for the Word is not an insignificant Word. It stands for something. The words of Christ leave an impression; they are meant for the whole world, when he says: Beware, be warned! that we receive the Word with fear and trembling hearts. So you have now heard why divisions and sects arise, namely, that those who are tempted and tried may become the more glorious, and that the others, the unthankful ones who despise the Word, may be punished. The Gospel lesson further says: “Who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves.”
16. No one sends them. They come of themselves. This is the true description of false prophets, that they force themselves into the ministry. Some, in order to find their bread and butter, which I do not consider of much importance, for even there they will not find a paradise. For
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those who intrude into this office with the pretension that they do so on account of Christian love, for the sake of the truth, and because the Holy Spirit urges them, and that they do it for the sake of love and the salvation of souls, and that they seek nothing else but their salvation; beware of all such people, for the devil has most certainly sent them, and not God. For those whom God sends are called or compelled to it. They do not boast greatly of themselves. Yet, when they do boast, they prove it by miracles. Hence beware, because the Lord says, they will come, not being sent or called, but they come and the devil calls them.
17. But do they not boast they have the Holy Spirit? I answer: Whoever would persuade you that the Holy Spirit moves him, and that he does it from a Christian suggestion, say to him: As you boast so much of the Spirit, give me a proof. You bear witness of yourself, and the Scriptures have forbidden me to believe you on your own testimony alone, for even Christ, the living Son of God would not bear witness of himself, as we read in the Gospel of John 5:31£. But when he did so he also did miracles besides, so that men might know that his Word and doctrine were true. And inasmuch as you say you have the Holy Spirit, give me a proof of your Spirit; prove it by real signs that a man may believe you, for here a divine witness is necessary to prove the Spirit of God, so that there may be two of you, yourself and God. This is a divine call, and unless it is forthcoming, cast the other away and let it go to pieces.
18. And even though I grant that such a one is really a true spirit, and has the Holy Spirit; even then you must not hear him. Nor will God be greatly angered at you for this, as he has commanded you to keep his ordinances, to ask for two witnesses, and to call for a miracle. For if he sends you one with a true spirit, he does it to test you, to see whether you will keep his ordinances, receiving no one unless he gives you a proof beforehand. Therefore say: I do not want you, even though you have the right
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Spirit. For God desires thus to prove me, whether I will abide by his order. Hence he is also satisfied and well pleased, when you do not accept his Spirit. For he tests us by offering us the contrary, to see whether you on this account would depart from his Word, He acts like a father who plays with his child, whom he has given an apple and takes it away again, in order to see whether the child loves him or not.
19. Then give heed here, whether he be right Or wrong, and say: I will not go with you, I care not what you preach, I only ask whether you have been sent, or whether you came of yourself? If you came of yourself I will not hear you, even though you have the Holy Spirit. For the devil in the Gospel can also say: Let us alone; hold, “what have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Nazarene? Art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.” Mark 1 :24. Thus the common crowd also cries out: Here is the true and faithful Word of God, which this man preaches, let us hear him. But see thou first whence he cometh. The devil also can preach, but he does it to provide himself an opportunity to win adherents. Then he comes forth and sows his poisonous seed, so that the condition becomes worse than in the beginning. Hence these are nothing but warnings, by which Christ warns us against those who come of themselves. Therefore wait, until they are sent or called. For he drives and urges those whom he wants, so that in short they must come whether they will or not.
20. The other call is the request of the congregation or of the government to go. This is a call of love, which does not come down from heaven nor out of faith, but flows from love. For you and I owe it to each other to love our neighbor as ourselves. For when he needs my assistance and asks for it, I am in duty bound to come to his help, for the Word of God commands that I should serve my neighbor. Then this call does not require a miracle, because they themselves desire it, and the Word of God urges me thereto. This is to be in demand, to be called and to be driven.
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That which comes from heaven is called a sending, when the Holy Ghost comes and performs miracles. To the others, whether they boast of the Spirit or the flesh, reply: I care nothing for that. As our fanatics at present boast that they have devoured the Holy Spirit, feathers and all and are thoroughly filled with the Spirit and say, that the Holy Ghost has spoken to them from heaven, and has revealed something special to them, and the like. I myself cannot boast very much of the Spirit. They become Spirit all too soon for me. I boast of the Spirit of love otherwise I am nothing but a poor, carnal sinner. I to, ought to know something of the Spirit of which they boast. But alas, they are all too highly spiritualized for me.
21. However, what is this Christ says: They come in sheep’s clothing? These sheep’s clothing are, that they make an external exhibition of all things the true Christians and ministers teach. For we, who are the lambs of Christ, wear the sheep’s wool. This is not only the works, the showy hypocritical life they lead, praying a great deal and wearing gray gowns, walking with downcast countenances, carrying a pater noster about their necks, fasting often and going to church a great deal; but the worst of all is that they make use of God’s Word and the Holy Scriptures, which in the prophets are called God’s wool and linen. For preaching together with admonition and Scripture passages are the true clothing with which they would adorn and array themselves, saying: Here is Christ, here is Baptism, here is the name of God, here is he who quotes the Scriptures,
which is the Word of God, and immediately they add to all this God’s name, God’s Spirit and Christ.
22. This then, is coming in sheep’s clothing, namely, so to preach and to quote the Scriptures that it may appear as the true doctrine; for it is not said that they come in wolves’ clothing, or with teeth and spears. They do not publicly preach anything destructive or without Scripture, otherwise people might recognize them, as for instance when they preached Aristotle in the high schools, and common law or the law of the emperor and said: There is no
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God in Christianity. Now, however, they do not only adorn themselves with external works, but also with the Holy Scriptures, with which God clothes and covers our souls; for if they would not do this, the unthankful would not be thus blinded, and we would not be so wretchedly deceived.
23. Therefore it is true as men say, the holy Bible is a book for heretics, that is, it is a book that heretics dare to claim for themselves most of all. For there is no other book which they so wickedly misuse, than just this very book. And there never was a heresy so bad or gross, that they did not try to patch up or cover with the Scriptures. Just as men say, God is the God of rogues, because they, who are the largest crowd in the world, claim for themselves the name of God, not that God is to blame, but the rogues, who thus take the holy name of God in vain. Thus the holy Bible must be a book for heretics, not that the holy Bible is to blame, but the rogues, who so shamefully misuse it. Should I for this reason neglect the Bible and not read it? By no means! As men are accustomed to say in the proverb: “In God’s name all misfortune begins,” which is true. Well then, I will not use the name of God at all, and guard myself against misfortune. But what talk is this? What blame can attach to a name, which is given us in order that we might be saved? God will surely punish such rogues and knaves. Thus the Bible is a book for heretics, but I will not for this reason cast it away, but so much the more study and learn it, because these rogues oppose it.
24. Therefore let now every person be thus well prepared arid thoroughly equipped, that he may not so easily be led astray by their showy life, although they even attempt to quote Scripture to you, for ravening wolves are most certainly back of it. And although they think they feed and satisfy you, they actually rend you, destroy and devour you. However, without spiritual eyes no one will be able so soon to decide or judge of this matter. The crowd and common people will not do it; the largest crowd despises the Gospel and are unthankful, while only the smallest flock accept it
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and can appreciate it. I have often said, and will always say it, that the greatest and most difficult contest is, for a person to contend with the Scriptures against the Scriptures; to strike aside another man’s sword and wrench it out of his fist, to slay him with his own sword; to take from him his weapon, and with it strike him again. This no one elm accomplish, except he who is enlightened by the Holy Spirit, so as to be able to recognize these rogues.
25. You have often heard from me the safest doctrine and rule, by which to prove the spirits, as John tells us in his first Epistle 4:1-3. “Beloved, believe not every spirit but prove the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world. Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God. And every spirit that confesseth not Jesus, is not of God: and this is the spirit of the Antichrist.” The other rule is given by Paul in Rom. 12:6: “Whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of our faith.” That is, all teaching must harmonize and agree with faith alone, so that nothing else be taught but faith. It follows that he, who has not faith, does not know Christ, and cannot judge of doctrine, for to do this the carnal minded are not required, who are worldly wise and smart, but pious, spiritual hearts. Many say: Christ is a man who is the Son of God, born of a pure, chaste virgin, became man, died, and rose again from the dead, and so forth; all this is nothing. But that he is Christ, that is, that he was given for us, without any of our works; that he without any of our merit has earned for us God’s Spirit, and made us children of God so that we might have a gracious God, and with him become lords over all things in heaven and on earth, and have eternal life besides through Christ: this is the faith, and this means rightly to know Jesus Christ. This is the touchstone, the level and the scales, by which all doctrine must be weighed, tried and judged. The others also know what to call Christ, that he is the Son of God, died, rose again
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from the dead, with what follows. For this is the real sheep’s clothing.
26. But pay attention to their dilemma: If they say Christ died for us, was buried and rose again and the like, then they must also conclude: therefore our works are of no avail. This point they will not touch, but flee from it, like the devil flees from incense or the cross, as it is said; although he does not really run away from it so very much. He permits them to preach that Christ was born, died and rose again, and sitteth at the right hand of his heavenly Father; but when in addition they also preach: thus and thus :you must do, this and that you must omit; this is the devil who mingles his poison with the truth. As the Pope writes and puts on the sheep’s clothing in his bulls, namely, that Christ by his death and shedding his blood has merited for us that we are the children of God and are saved, and have eternal life; but to all this he adds: Whoever is not obedient to the Roman church, is a child of perdition; but he, who is obedient and does what the church of Rome commands and appoints, shall be saved, his soul shall rise straight up to heaven. Does not the Pope require his rules to be more strictly observed than the Gospel? Only compare them and see. If the death of Christ does this, then my works cannot do it. It would be quite another matter if he would preach: You must obey me out of Christian love, but not to be saved thereby, for this the blood of Christ alone can do. But this nut he never tries to crack.
27. Therefore I warn you once again, to think of this when I am no longer with you in the flesh, and closely observe their doctrine whether they preach Christ correctly, that is, whether they boast of their own works before God: then you will be able to judge. I often said and repeat it, that you will find them always requiring some good little deed, not thereby to serve the people, but in order to merit salvation, that whoever does and keeps this shall be saved, but he who does not observe and do this, shall be damned. Thus they force you to trust in works, as the fanatics drove
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the mob to break up images by saying: Whoever breaks an image or tears down a painting does a good work, and proves himself a Christian. Soon the crowd rushed forth, thrust and broke to pieces by the wholesale, for they all wanted to be Christians, just as though the Jews, the heathen and the Turks, and the worst rogues could not do the same things.
28. Such fanatics do not destroy confidence in works, but rather give more value to works and permit confidence in them to be retained. Work there, work here, only cut out of it all confidence and trust, and do not put your trust in works as in a god, but let them only serve your neighbor, that confidence in your works may be in your neighbor, that is, that he feels certain you will do him every kindness, and that you have like confidence in him. Your confidence for your salvation must rest alone in Christ, for which you dare not trust in your works a hair’s breadth. When they preach thus, it agrees with faith. If it is according to the proportion of faith, then Christ is not annihilated nor broken to pieces, but remains whole in knowledge as he really is. And although the devil also pretends that he preaches Christ through his own apostles, do not believe him, he only seeks to win your soul through deceit and cunning, and will deceive you. Well, let this warning be sufficient; but it does not help any [among those who will not hear it]; [he who shall be lost, will be lost]. Yet it aids those who are to be reformed. Here follows the third proof and way of knowing the spirits, and reads: “Ye shall know them by their fruits.”
29. These fruits are their works and behavior. Yet spiritual eyes are needed to see this, that one may learn well to know the really good works, which Paul mentions to the Galatians, 5:22, where he says: “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace,
longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, self-control.” These are the true fruits of the Spirit. But the works of the flesh are “fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousies, wraths, factions, divisions, par-
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ties, envyings, drunkenness, revelings, and such like.” Gal. 5:19-21.
30. Now, take heed rightly to distinguish works from one another. In all their works you will not find a single spark of love. You will indeed find that they are friendly within their own sect, calling one another Christians and brethren; but there is nothing in them but the very poison of the devil. They have neither mercy nor patience, nor friendship for anyone who is not of their sect. For if they could destroy us body and soul in an hour or a moment they would do it. This fruit flesh and blood do not see, but in the meantime they wear gray gowns and belong to a quiet order, and observe the same rule and habit.
31. These are not works of love; for works of love are such as are exercised toward the needy, and toward our enemies, when we are merciful to sinners, instruct and teach the ignorant, and serve the poor bodily with our goods and honor, as Christ teaches in Mat. 25 :35f. You will not find these works in any false prophet. Any one may indeed conduct himself like a spiritual man by his extraordinary behavior, like barefooted and Carthusian monks do. But what benefit is all this to me? And that others break down cloisters and images, what good does that do their neighbor? All this merely makes a show and when you view it superficially there seems something in it; but there is no benefit in it. Love, however, requires works that will do some good.
32. Now watch and see if the false prophets give anything to the poor. To be sure, they accept gifts, being greedy and stingy. But I have not yet seen any who give cheerfully, for they only want to have, and that we should give to them. Dear-me, ye golden. friends, who would not like this? You speak much of good works and a good life, and do not know what it is, namely, to be of use and benefit to your neighbor. From these fruits you may know them. Again, they do not only not assist any one, nor help the poor, but rejoice and are glad at their neighbor’s misfortunes. When one is in disgrace they will not protect him
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with their honor, nor help him out of his trouble, but plunge him still deeper down, spread the news and sing doggerels about him and laugh at him secretly besides.
33. Again, when one falls into sin, they have no tender heart for him; their heart being hardened they enjoy their neighbor’s fall and use it to set off their own goodness. ‘What shall we say to sum up this matter? They have rough, bitter, poisonous hearts; they have a black, poisonous tongue, and can cut up everybody on their slaughter bench, give everyone a black mark and leave no one without blame; they judge, condemn and decry everyone, and think little of anyone’s injury. Alas, what pious spirits we have here!
34. Therefore open your eyes and see whether they do the works that are beneficial to men, and you will find out that you cannot gather grapes from thorns or figs from thistles. A good grape on the vine does not devour itself nor us, but is eaten; it is useful only and harms no one. But no one enjoys the thorns; they prick, and scratch and injure everyone. Mark then, whether they do such works which benefit others. That they wear gray gowns and shirts of hair-cloth, that they lie on woolen cloth, creep into a corner ; for all this let the devil thank them! If, however, they would lend me money in my distress and open their purses, and lend corn to those who have neither flour nor bread, into whose homes the sun enters before bread; here they are not found. Give me a coat, something to eat and drink; visit me when I am sick; comfort me in my sins; this might help me. Yes, you may wait until you find such a person, or come again in the morning!
35. But to stand in the choir and howl and chant vociferously, to enjoy good easy days without work, to sleep, to feast and get drunk, all this they are willing to do. Oh! my dear, who could not do this? It would be easy to put a cap even on a donkey, girdle him with a rope, shave him a tonsure and stand him in a corner and make him fast and feast to the glory of the saints, so that in all things he may behave similarly to you and all your false works!
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So likewise, when I fall into disgrace, and become guilty of murder or adultery, there is no grace for me, and no one is so merciful as to help me quiet and better my conscience, but they laugh at me, and all the world must know it, and have grand books written about it.
36. So in their whole body and soul, you will be unable to find one single good work. They are hateful, envious, stingy; such fruits of the flesh will ye observe in them. Let them quote the Scriptures and pretend to be holy as much as they please, only observe whether their doctrine harmonizes with the proof of faith; and see to it that Christ be not dethroned, that his knowledge remain entire and undisturbed, and in the third place see whether they exercise good works toward their neighbor or not. This they will doubtless omit, for the devil can do no good work. This is what Christ the Lord means when he adds: “Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Been so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but the corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.”
37. Here we must notice what he says: “By their fruits ye shall know them.” He does not say: Ye shall make them out of their fruits. For who ever made a pear tree out of a pear, or a cherry tree out of a cherry? It is, however, the law of nature that the tree should make the fruit, an apple tree the apple, and so forth. The tree is known by its fruits, but is not made by its fruits. Just as Abraham when he offered his son Isaac was previously good and obedient, yet, it was said to him, Gen. 22:12: “Now I know that thou fearest God.” He does not say: Now you have become godfearing; but by this work it is revealed and made known that you fear God.
38. Hence these are two distinct things, to be or become something, and that something be made known or revealed. There are many things that are known to God alone, but when it is revealed it also becomes known to man. Here Christ teaches that the fruits shall serve the purpose to know the tree, whether the tree be good or evil. Abraham became known by his works,
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as one who feared God and was pious and righteous, Therefore, before the fruits come they must be good, since they do nothing else but show forth the nature of the tree. To reveal a thing is by far a different matter from the existence of the thing itself. So my external works aid nothing to the end, that I am or become good, but make known and reveal the good treasure, and the heart in which it lies concealed. For this treasure that lies concealed in the heart, God desires to make known, and not to be left concealed.
39. Thus in so far the works make us good, pure and holy externally before the people, but not internally before God. For this Christ and faith alone must do. Speaking in this manner you will speak correctly and distinctly. However, if anyone is so stiffnecked and stubborn that he will not allow himself to be instructed, let him go, for we cannot give good advice to such people, nor is such preaching meant for them; but we seek hearts gone astray, who eagerly desire to be good and to understand it correctly; they also accept our instruction, and to them we preach. Hence he further says: “A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit; neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit:”
40. The work righteous are corrupt trees. But do they not perform many good works? Indeed, what is a good work? Here let me ask, whether their hands,” pockets cellars and farms are at the service of mankind to help them in body and soul? But they cannot. Again, a good tree bringeth not forth evil fruit, that is, a Christian, be he ever so weak and helpless, he will do his neighbor no harm. Do not understand me to say that he cannot fall; for David also was a good tree, and yet he fell, 2 Sam. 12, but he did not become a corrupt tree. As long as a Christian is true and remains in the faith, you must not expect he will do anything to harm his neighbor, but much rather to help him. And if at times things should occur as with David, you should not be offended at them, for God permits such mishaps to occur, that his saints at times stum-
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ble and suffer, by which their faith maybe strengthened and increased, and that they may learn their own weakness. So far as the tree is good, so little is the harm it does; and the more evil the tree is, the greater harm it does. We are not yet wholly good, but we labor to the end that day by day we may become better. But our consolation is that which the Lord adds, saying: “Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.”
41. Sects and factions will not last, if we are only able to await their destruction; but a faithful minister will be victorious and will endure. For the Word of God abideth forever. Is. 40:8. But what the devil sows runs like a mad dog, as David the prophet says in the first Psalm: “The ungodly shall not stand,” they will be driven hither and thither, and will be dispersed like dust on the threshing flood. Thus they now run and break forth, but at length they will be cut down and cast into the fire. Here he closes and says: “Therefore by their fruits ye shall know them.”
42. This is one kind of knowledge, as I said. Paul speaks of a different kind in Rom. 12:2; and John in his first Epistle, 4:l-that we should criticize and judge their doctrine according to the knowledge of Christ, also whether their teaching is in harmony with faith. But their works and life, of which he here speaks, we must measure and judge according to love. But whoever has not the first kind of knowledge and judgment, will easily be deceived by works.
Third Sermon: Matthew 7:15-23.
The pagination from the Baker edition has been maintained for referencing. This e-text was scanned and edited by Paul W. Meier. It is in the public domain and it may be copied and distributed without restriction.
CONTENTS: INSTRUCTION CONCERNING FALSE PROPHETS.
1. Christ our Lord preached this part of the Gospel in concluding his long sermon on the mount. When he had taught his disciples all they should know, he proceeds and warns them to be ever on their guard against false doctrine; as all good ministers try and should do at the close of their sermons, namely, warn the people to hold fast to the true doctrine and beware of false teaching. Thus St. Paul also did, Acts 20:28-31, when he was about to depart from Ephesus, among other things, he said: “Take heed unto yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit hath made you bishops, to feed the church of the Lord which he purchased with his own blood. I know that after my departing grievous wolves shall enter in among you, not sparing the flock; and from among your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them. Wherefore watch ye, remembering that by the space of three years I ceased not to admonish every one night and day with tears.” Thus here and there in all his Epistles Paul always adds an admonition, to guard themselves against other teachings. Just as St. Peter also gives an admonition in his second Epistle, 2:1f, when he says: “But there arose false prophets also among the people, as among you also there shall be false teachers, who shall privily bring in destructive heresies, denying even the Master that bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction. And many shall follow their lascivious doings; by reason of whom the way of the truth shall be evil spoken of. And in coveteousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you; whose sentence now from of old lingereth not, and their destruction slumbereth not.”
2. Christ here proceeds in like manner. When he finished his sermon he warns his disciples and the people and admonishes them ever to remain faithful to what he had
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told them, and to be very careful not to be misled by false teachers, and says: “Beware of false prophets:”
3. First from this we are to understand that we are under obligation to reflect upon this fact and that it will always be that after the true preachers depart false teachers will come; yea, they will even enter along with and mingle with them. Otherwise, why were it necessary for Christ so faithfully to admonish us when he says: “Beware,” take care! if he had known that all his teachings would continue pure? Therefore he gives us this warning, that we may be certain of false prophets appearing after the true “and pure doctrine is preached. For it has come to pass in all periods of the world’s history that after faithful and true ministers, prophets and rulers of God’s people labored, others followed who corrupted the pure doctrine, faith and worship; as the Book of Judges, 2:10f, also describes. When those were gathered to their fathers whom God had given the people as teachers and judges, who knew the will of God, what was and what was not acceptable to him, immediately the people of Israel began to turn away from God and his Word. One worshiped this idol, another that, and they were divided into factions so that they fell from the true teachings and strayed from the ways of their fathers.
4. So it was also in the times of the Apostles. Then the doctrine was yet pure; but when they died who held to their true teachings, false apostles and factious leaders came who perverted everything and desired radical changes in all things, as the Epistles of St. Paul sufficiently show. Now, inasmuch as this is so, and we cannot expect anything else, Christ our Lord warns us here in the spirit of a true shepherd and bishop, that we beware while we have the Gospel preached in its purity and simplicity, that we hold firmly to it and depart not from it, even at the risk of losing our life and possessions. For it cannot be otherwise than that God’s ‘Word will not continue always pure and unadulterated in all generations.
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5. Thus it will come to pass also among us. God be praised, we and others have the Gospel in greater purity and abundance than at any time since the days of the Apostles. But when we and those who now assist to promote it are gathered to our fathers, you will have false teachers enough, as many have already commenced and they already bestir themselves. And blessed are they who are diligently on their guard according to this Gospel and believe not every wind of doctrine, but remain steadfast in what they have learned. This Christ first teaches here with the words: “Beware,” be warned, as if to say: you will most certainly have to contend with false teachers.
6. Here you may ask: why does God permit false prophets to come among his pious people and be the successors of his true ministers? Is he not powerful and strong enough to prevent it, so that the Gospel may continue pure and in its power? Of course he is. But he permits it in order to prove and preserve his own people, and to punish the unthankful. It is as St. Paul in 1 Cor. 11:19 says: “For there must be also factions among you, that they that are approved may be made manifest among you.” This means, that those whose faith is approved may become manifest, so that their spirit and word appear, and testify that they are true.
7. When God gives us his Word, his gifts and Spirit, it is not his will that we should be lazy, sleepy and idle. For if you have the true Word and its true meaning, the world will attack you on one side, and the devil will attempt to tear you from it on the other, not only by means of worldly tyrants who persecute the Word with the sword; but also by means of our own reason and the wisest people in the world. Thus God desires to develop you by his Word, and to give the Holy Spirit whom he has bestowed upon you something to do, so that you may learn that God’s wisdom is wiser than the world’s wisdom, that God’s strength is stronger than the strength and power of the world, which you will not learn unless you pass through this conflict with false teachers.
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8. Wherever he permits the devil to create factions, he would thus stir you up, and say: Defend yourself, lay hold of the Word, and learn to experience God’s wisdom and power against the wisdom of the world and the lies of satan. Thus the strength and wisdom of God’s Word will appear that you may learn that it is not to be conquered with power and wisdom; but it conquers, and puts to shame all power, cunning and wisdom opposed to it. This is one reason why God permits factions and sects among us, who enter in as it were edgewise, as though they were beneficial and served to the end that the ,Word, the truth and Spirit prove themselves to be better and plainer; however aside from this factions and sects serve no good purpose.
9. The second reason is, that he may punish the unthankful, who will not accept the Word, that they may be converted and saved. As Christ also said to the Jews, John 5:43: “I am come in my Father’s name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.” Paul also says in 2 Thess. 2:10: “Because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this cause God sendeth them a working of error. that they should believe a lie; that they all might be judged who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.” Thus God severely punishes these sins with blindness and error, which are also the greatest and worst sins although we regard them to be so insignificant.
10. We consider it a small matter, that the Gospel of God’s grace is again restored to us. How many are there who never even once thanked God for it? We forget it, cast it to the winds, become lazy and careless, no one welcome it, no one relishes it, no one lifts up thankful hands to God for it. Yes, we are so richly overflooded with the Gospel that we have now become tired of it, and are almost turned against it, as Paul prophesied in 2 Tim. 4 :3-4: “For the time will come when they will not endure the sound doctrine; but, having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts; and will turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside unto fables.” Thus we
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see time and again throughout the whole Scriptures, how highly it offends God and that he considers it the greatest sin, when his Word is despised which is so dear and precious that it cost him the blood of his dear Son, while we so lightly cast it to the winds. For this reason he also visits us with the worst of all calamities, which is not to be compared with the other calamities in the world, so that the people become so hardened, blindfolded and misled by the false prophets, that heaven itself is closed against them and hell opens to receive them, and life eternal is lost forever. Even though you fall under the sword of the Turk or of tyrants, if you only die in the true knowledge of God’s Word and in true faith, what is that but a blessed death, devoutly to be desired? But to deliver the soul forever to the devil, is eternal wrath, an everlasting calamity and hell itself.
11. God has now begun to visit us with manifold temporal and bodily calamities. But a far worse calamity will await us, when the holy Gospel is banished from Germany, or other false teachers appear, when one teaches this, another that. Then heaven will be closed, and the false preachers will not permit it to be opened. Hence there is great need that we pray earnestly. But, alas, how very cold our hearts are, and the reason of this is that our walls are not yet on fire, and we do not feel the loss. Nevertheless the devil has determined to drown all Germany in blood, and to take the Gospel from us, unless he be prevented beforehand and held in check by the prayers of pious Christians. “Who come to you in Sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves.”
12. No one sends them. They come of themselves. And this is the real nature of false prophets, that in order to preach they force themselves u on us. Some do this for a living, which I do not value very highly, for they will not have it quite as easy as they think. But those who force themselves upon us with the boast that they do it for the sake of Christian love, on account of the truth and that the
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Holy Spirit constrains them to do so; and that they seek nothing but the salvation of souls; of all such be on your guard, for the devil has most certainly sent them, and not God. For those whom God sends are called and constrained to enter upon their work. Nor do they boast much of themselves. But of whatever they do boast, they prove by their work. Therefore, the Lord would say, beware of those you see are neither sent nor called, but come of themselves at the devil’s call.
13. Yet they ever boast they have the Holy Spirit? Answer: whoever would convince you that he is moved by the Holy Spirit and does this from Christian motives, say to him: As you ‘boast so much of the Spirit, give-me proof of it. For you testify of yourself, and the Scriptures forbid me to believe anyone who only testifies of himself. For even Christ, the Son of the living God, would not bear witness of himself, as we read in the Gospel of John 5:31 and 8:14. However, he furnished testimony by which men might know that he was sent from God, and that his ‘Word and doctrine were true. As you then say you have the Holy Spirit, give us evidence of your Spirit, prove it with facts that we may believe you. For here a divine testimony is necessary to prove the presence of the Spirit of God, in order that there may be two witnesses, you and God. If you will not do this, then we can neither hear nor believe you.
14. For, if we grant it is true, that one is a true spirit and has the true Holy Spirit; even then you should not bear him. For God has commanded that you should observe his order, and ask for two witnesses, and demand the proof and record of his call. Therefore say: I will not listen to you on the ground of your pretenses and boasting, even though you should have the true Spirit, for God would thus test me, whether I wish to remain in the order he has established. Therefore God is satisfied and well pleased, if you do not receive such a spirit; for God thus acts with us to try us, to see whether we will continue in his Word;
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as a father who plays with his child, gives it an apple and takes it again.
15. Therefore, when a spirit comes self-called and brings something new, then know how to guard yourself and say: I do not ask what you preach, but whether you are sent, or you come of yourself? If you come of yourself, I will not hear you, even though you have the Holy Spirit; for the devil in the Gospel can also say: “What have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? I know thou art the Holy One of God.” Mark 1:24. So the vulgar crowd also say: Here is the real and true Word of God which this man preaches, let us hear him. Yes, look out beforehand whence he comes. The devil can preach too, but he does it for an occasion to win adherents; then he comes forth and sows his poison among the good grain, so that it becomes worse than at the beginning. Therefore Christ so diligently warns us against those who come of themselves.
16. Another call is when the congregation or civil authority calls one for the sake of the Church. This call proceeds out of the debt and duty of love; for when people need me for the ministry, provided I am fit for it, and they require it of me, it is then my duty to obey, for God commands me to serve my neighbor. Therefore, this call requires no proof, because the people desire it, and the Word of God constrains me. This means “brought,” “called” and “urged.” But the other call, like that of Christ and the Apostles, comes immediately from God, and is called “sent,” because it is accompanied by the testimonies of the Holy Spirit. Others, though they boast of the Spirit or of the flesh, you are not to hear. As our fanatical, erratic spirits now boast, who have devoured the Holy Spirit feathers and all, and say: the Holy Spirit has spoken to them from heaven and revealed to them many wonderful things, and so forth. I cannot boast much of the Spirit; they become spiritual entirely too soon for me. I boast of the Spirit of love, otherwise I am a poor carnal sinner. However, I ought indeed to know something also of the
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Spirit, of whom they boast; but they are all too highly spiritualized for me.
17. What is meant when he says: They come in sheep’s clothing? These sheep’s clothing are, that they employ everything for an outward show that true Christians and true ministers teach. For we, who are the lambs of Christ, are covered with the sheep’s wool. These are not only works, an outward, hypocritical life they lead, in that they pray much and wear gray frocks, go about with bowed heads, fast much and lead a strict life; but the worst of all is that they make use of the Word of God and the holy Scriptures for selfish ends, which in the prophets are called God’s wool and linen. For preaching, likewise admonitions and Scripture passages, are the real clothing with which they desire to adorn and pride themselves, saying: Here is Christ, here is baptism, here is the name of God, here is he who interprets the Scriptures which are the Scriptures of God, and their whole pretense is nothing but God’s name, God’s Spirit and Christ’s Spirit.
18. This now is meant by coming in sheep’s clothing; namely, so to preach and so to make use of the Scriptures that it may be esteemed as the true doctrine. For he does not say: who come to you in a wolf’s hide, or with spears and showing their teeth. They do not preach any poisonous doctrine publicly or without the Scriptures, for then men might know them; as for instance they have preached Aristotle in their high schools, that there is neither civil authority nor the right of the emperor, wherein they said, there was no God in Christianity. On the contrary, they adorned themselves not only with works, but also with the holy Scriptures, by which God clothes and covers our souls: For if they would not act thus, the unthankful would not be so easily blindfolded or misled by them.
19. Hence the saying is true, the holy Scriptures are a book for heretics, that is, they are a book to which heretics most of all lay claim. For they misuse no other book so much, yea, they do not know any other worthy of praise, and no heresy was ever so wicked or gross, that did not
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attempt to strengthen itself and recommend itself by the use of the Scriptures. Just as a man might say: God is the God of all rogues and rascals, because the largest crowd in the world take his part. Not because their rascality comes from God or is acceptable to him, but because they thus take his holy name in vain. So then, the holy Scriptures must be a heretic’s book, not that the book is to blame, but because of these rogues who so shamefully misuse it. In like manner people are accustomed to say in the proverb: All misfortune begins in God’s name. This is also true. Well, you say, then I will be careful not to make use of God’s name. What is that you utter? How can you blame the name, that is given in order that I might be saved? He will indeed find and punish these rogues and rascals. Well, then, the Bible is a heretic’s book, but I will not throw it away on that account; on the contrary, I will study and read it much more, so that I may know how to avoid the misuse of it;
20. Then let everyone be prepared and armed, that he may not so easily allow himself to be misled by the brilliant pretentions of false teachers, although they at the time quote the Scriptures. For within certainly lie concealed ravenous wolves. And when you think they will feed and satisfy your ‘soul, then they rend you, murder and devour you. But no one will so readily judge or decide this matter, except with spiritual eyes. The common man and the rabble cannot, for the largest multitude despise the Gospel and are unthankful, while the smallest flock receive it and can appreciate it. And this is the greatest and severest contest, when one must contend with Scripture against Scripture, to strike one’s sword away and get the advantage of him, to pluck his weapon out of his hand and slay him with his own sword, which no one can do except he who is enlightened by the Holy Spirit so that he sees this rogue.
21. I have often told you the surest doctrine and rule, with which to prove the spirits. It is that St. John gives in his first Epistle 4:1: “Beloved, believe not every spirit, but prove the spirits, whether they are of God. Every spirit
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that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, is of God. And every spirit that confesseth not Jesus is not of God.”
22. Also St. Paul in Rom. 12:7 says: “Whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of our faith That is, all doctrines must harmonize and agree with faith, so that nothing be taught but faith. He who has not this faith cannot judge of any doctrine correctly, for here the carnal minded who are smart and worldly wise are incompetent, only pious spiritual hearts can do that. Of course there are many who say: Christ is the son of God, born of a chaste virgin, died and rose again from the dead, and so forth. However, they do not believe that he is Christ, that is, that he was given for us, without any effort of ours, and has won for us the Spirit of God and makes us his children without any merit on our part, so that through him we might have a gracious God and eternal life. This is the faith that is called, to know Christ. This is the touchstone, the judgment-disk and the balance, by which all doctrine must be weighed, proved and judged. It is therefore not sufficient that a teacher or preacher should merely know the creed concerning Christ, that he is the Son of God, died and rose again from the dead and so forth. This of course is all sheep’s clothing.
23. But observe the difficulty: when they say, Christ has died, was buried and rose again, and did the like for us, then they must also conclude that we do not deserve the forgiveness of sins and eternal life and God’s’ grace by virtue of our own merit. This point the
false spirits most certainly never touch or enforce, but avoid it, as they say the devil does incense or the cross. He allows them to preach of course, how Christ was born, died and rose again, ascended to heaven and sitteth at the right hand of his heavenly Father, yet they mingle other things with it, as thus and thus you must do, this or that you must leave undone, if you want to be saved and please God. This is the devil who administers his poison in a sugar coated form. 24. The Pope also robes himself in such sheep’s clothing,
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that Christ has indeed merited for us by his death and by shedding his blood, that we are saved and become God’s children. He adds however to this: Whoever is not obedient to the Romish church is a child of eternal condemnation; but whoever obeys will thereby be saved and ascend straight to heaven. Does not the Pope insist on his own affairs as strongly as on the Gospel? But compare the two. If the death of Christ does it, then my works cannot do it. it would be quite a different thing if he would preach thus: You are to obey me out of Christian love, but not to be saved thereby, which takes place through the blood of Christ. But he will not bite this nut.
25. Therefore learn well to be on your guard, and thoroughly examine all doctrines, whether they rightly teach and apply this chief and fundamental doctrine, that is, whether they preach Christ correctly and purely. For you will certainly find among all factions and sects, that they always either omit this article entirely, or bring something with it to which they lead the people as though that were particularly necessary to salvation. Thus our fanatics and image-breakers also at first drew the crowd with them by the pretense that nothing was more necessary than to break images. Whoever breaks an image or destroys a table does a good work, and proves that he is a Christian. Soon the people as a mass rushed in crowds and all wanted to be Christians; just as though the Jews, Gentiles and Turks and the worst rogues could not do the same thing.
26. Such fanatics do not shake our confidence in works, but rather strengthen it and rest in them. Where there are true teachers their preaching agrees with faith. If it be in the proportion of faith, then Christ will not be neglected or divided, but will remain entire in his knowledge as he is. And although the devil pretends to preach Christ through his apostles, do not believe him, for he would entrap you with his cunning and deceive you. Indeed this is warning enough, but it is in vain for those who will not hear. Yet it assists those who are to be changed for the better. Now
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follow the third test and way to know the spirits, which reads thus: “By their fruits ye shall know them:”
27. All our outward behavior and works are fruits. But in order to learn to know thoroughly the truly good works, one must have spiritual eyes. St. Paul mentions such works to the Galatians, 5:22: “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace,
longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, self-control.” These are the true fruits of the Spirit. But the works of the flesh are: “fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousies, wraths, factions, divisions, parties, envyings, drunkenness, revelings and such like.” Gal. 2:19-21.
28. When you carefully distinguish the works of the flesh from the works of the Spirit, you will not find in all the works of the false prophets a single spark of the Spirit In the first place you will certainly not find any true fruits of faith or works of love among them, But you will find, that they are very friendly among themselves and call each other brethren; but this is nothing but poison and the devil within them. For whatever does not belong to their faction they have no mercy, no patience or friendliness; but if they could, they would destroy them body and soul in an hour or a moment. Flesh and blood do not see the fruits, hence in the meantime they of course wear their gray frocks, are a quiet order and observe the same customs and principles.
29. These are not works of love. On the contrary, works of love are those we do in behalf of the suffering and toward our enemies, also in showing mercy to sinners, in instructing and teaching the ignorant, and in serving the poor with our own body, goods and honor, as Christ relates in Mat. 25:25f. You will not find these works in any false prophet. He may indeed conduct himself like a Christian in his extraordinary behavior, like the bare-footed friars and Carthusians; but what benefit is that to me? Likewise, what benefit is it to a neighbor that others destroy monasteries
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and pictures. This is only a show and appears as if it were something, but there is no benefit in it whatever. Love, however, requires works that are beneficial to your fellow men.
30. Again, you will further note how proud and impudent these spirits are, who only desire to be honored and worshiped; and are full of greed and know nothing of mercy. They not only refuse to give to anyone and to help the poor; but they also rejoice and are pleased to see that their neighbors do not prosper. If a person be found in disgrace they will not help with their own honor to rescue him from his disgrace; but plunge him still deeper into it and publish it abroad, sing a song about him and laugh at him in their glee. And when one falls into sin, their hearts have no sympathy for him; but they harden their hearts and are only tickled over their neighbor’s downfall and adorn themselves by it. And what more shall we say? These are rude, bitter hearts, full of poison, which have only a black, baneful tongue, and can hew everyone to pieces upon the slaughter block. They must turn men into demons, leave no one uncensured, judge, condemn and despise everyone, and regard everyone’s disgrace with scorn. Christ therefore says of them: “Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but the corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit,” etc.
31. Here note, he says: “By their fruits ye shall know them.” He does not say: By their fruits they become good or evil. For when was there ever a pear tree made out of a pear; or a cherry tree out of a cherry? However, it is natural, that the tree bears the fruit, an apple tree bears apples, and so on. The tree of course is known by its fruits, but it is not made by its fruits. Like Abraham when he offered his son Isaac was already God’s worshiper. And yet God said to him, Gen. 22:12: “For now I know that thou fearest God.” He does not say: Now you have become godfearing. On the contrary, by your work it becomes known and public, that you fear God.
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32. Hence these are two different things; to be or become something, and that something be known or be made public. There are many things that are known to God alone; but when he makes them manifest, they become known also to men. And Christ says, the fruits serve to the end, that by them men may know the tree whether it be good or evil, as Abraham was known by his works that he feared God, and was good and ighteous. Consequently, before the fruit becomes manifest it must grow out of the tree, that it may also thus become known what kind of a tree it is. However, to make a thing known is quite different from the existence of the thing itself. Consequently, the work I do, does not serve to the end that I may become good and just before God, but it only makes known and manifests the treasure and the heart, in which it is concealed. For this treasure hidden in the heart, God does not desire to leave neglected, but to make it known.
33. So far works make us good, pure and holy externally before men; but not internally before God; for this Christ alone and faith must accomplish. Thus this matter is correctly and variously explained. But if one is so stiffnecked and stubborn, and will not allow himself to be instructed, we let him go his own way. For to such we cannot explain anything, and nothing can be preached to them. But we seek erring hearts who desire rightly to understand and to please God. These are teachable, and to these we preach. Hence Christ says further: “Therefore by their fruits ye shall know them.”
34. This he repeats to teach and warn us, that we may know how to guard ourselves against such characters, and take good care to rightly know them; not by their name and self-praise, which mean the pure truth, spirit and salvation of souls, but by their fruits. For they all to be sure come adorned with the name of Christ, the Church and God’s Word, by which they blindfold the people with their continual noise and apparitions, so that the ignorant become terrified at such names, and cannot check or endure it. But Christ says, pay no attention to their
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pretensions and boasting. For this can deceive all, there is nothing common to them except the misuse of God’s name, Spirit, truth and Church, so that Paul is forced to declare, Gal. 1:8: “But though we (who in truth could boast that he was an Apostle sent by Christ), or an angel from heaven, should preach unto you any Gospel other than that which we preached unto you, let him be accursed.”
35. Now might not others misuse those precious names, or be unable to deceive and mislead, by what they present and boast of in the name of the Church? Since we are to believe no one who teaches anything else, although he came with the credentials of an Apostle, yea, even if he were an angel from heaven, not to say anything of the Church, which has not yet the high understanding and clear intelligence, nor the perfect purity and holiness of the angels in heaven.
36. Therefore, not to be misled by such glorious names and boasting, it is necessary that Christians, as I have said should have and know the true doctrine of Christ in the first place; and then according to Christ’s doctrine judge all other teaching, whether it agrees with and is built on the true foundation or not. For as he requires his Christians to beware of false teachers, and thus constitutes them judges, yea, commands them to prove and judge all doctrines, he also demands that they be wise and intelligent Christians, who know what the true doctrine is, and can distinguish between it and the false. For such testing and judging of doctrine must not be according to their own thoughts, or according to their own shrewdness or boast of the Spirit of holiness and the like. As the Pope with his councils falsely claims the only right to judge everything, and that everyone is bound to submit to his judgment, on the ground that they say they have the Holy Spirit, and cannot err. On the contrary we must have a sure, clear rule by which to judge, which is called the Word of Christ. This alone must be the great standard and test, as I have said often enough.
37. But since the multitudes of hearers are not all so
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intelligent and informed as to be able to make a clear distinction, and as sect spirits conceal themselves for a time among the true sheep, cover themselves with their wool and pretend to hold with the true Christians, and teach nothing but God’s Word, which the true Church teaches; therefore Christ here adds another thought, by which he teaches how we are to examine and know them, namely by their fruits. And he warns us not to act hastily and accept whatever is offered us as God’s Word; but we should first well consider, inquire and investigate whether it is according to God’s true Word, as the Bereans did, Acts 17:11. Again, you are to inquire as to the kind of fruit such doctrine produces; for the fruits cannot long be concealed, but must show themselves and let themselves be seen, as Christ here says: “Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?” And: “The corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.”
38. But he does not speak here chiefly of fruits which are coarse and readily perceived, so that everyone, though not a Christian, can easily judge and know them, and even before the world are publicly condemned sins and vices; but especially of the fruits of false doctrine Christ here speaks, which do not publish before the world the public works of an evil or criminal life, but present a fine appearance, (otherwise no one would be deceived), and yet they are opposed to God’s Word. Such fruits are not difficult for a Christian to know and to judge, when he diligently considers and judges them according to God’s Word and command. For here reason alone is not sufficient to investigate these things; but a spiritual understanding is necessary, which is able to distinguish what is, and is not, in harmony with the sure and clear teachings of holy Writ, or else a man would be deceived by the beautiful show of reason and human wisdom, with which all sects chiefly adorn and sell themselves, so that the fruits and life built on false doctrine, are regarded as genuine holiness.
39. So Popery and even Mohammed make a fine show with their monkery and worship, which they call a holy life, and
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hence conduct themselves in an exceptional way and manner, do not eat drink or clothe themselves like other people, which they regard as great severity, earnestness and discipline, and call it the service of God and the way to heaven. With this name and pretended worship, holy life, great devotion and good intentions, reason is easily blinded and taken captive, so that it cannot judge such things as evil fruit. Hence more is needed here than the understanding and judgment of reason, namely, that a person hold and estimate all life that false spirits regard good to be against God’s Word and command, which is the rule of all works and life that are good and pleasing to God. This rule shows the difference between the hypocritical works and fruits of false doctrine, and the good, honest works of the true doctrine. For it will readily appear that the works and life of hypocrites and false teachers do not agree and harmonize with God’s work.
40. Christ himself notes and censures the doctrine and life of the scribes and Pharisees because of their fruits, that they forsook God’s commandment and put in its place their own works and worship; yea, they verily abolished the commandments of God by their traditions. Just so has Popery also done, which did not only abolish one, but almost all God’s commandments, and instead not only taught and introduced something else, so that God’s command was no longer esteemed, and their own works held much higher, and they taught and practiced in their lives just the contrary, as I have abundantly demonstrated elsewhere.
41. For this is certainly the character of all sect spirits; they cannot avoid it, they must produce something of their own and different from God’s ‘Yard, and to boom it, so that it has a much greater reputation and appearance, and thus God’s Word and command take a second place. This is already a sure sign that their doctrine is false. As the Pope with his own doctrine praises his own worship and holy life, that his spiritual order and monasticism are much higher and better than other lives and works in the common vocations; where they live according to God’s Word. Again,
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they invent works which they call works of supererogation, superfluous works, which they pretend are much more costly and higher, than the works of the ten commandments of God. Thus all other religious tendencies act, aside from the true doctrine of the Scriptures, as Mohammed of the Turks, the Talmud of the Jews, as also our Anabaptists, are almost the same; all forsake and abandon the true works and life God’s Word requires and urges, and instead slaves after other hypocritical holiness with special works and writings, wearing grey frocks, looking sad, abstaining from wine, afflicting their body with remarkable fasting, repeating many and long prayers, and the like.
42. Therefore, I say, do not allow anyone to cause you to, gape in astonishment, or to make a continual noise in your presence with the false appearance and erring trash of great and excellent works, holiness, etc.; but come hither with such fruits to the true light which is God’s Word, from which we must learn and know what God requires and calls a true and good life, and according to it conclude both what is a good tree and good fruit, or what is the contrary. It avails nothing, what you may think is great, beautiful and precious. But if you would not err and be deceived, you must come to God’s ‘Yard, that you may not fancy but hear and know what God says is right, good and pleasing to him.
43. This is said in general of the fruits of false teaching, which indeed appear precious, and yet are evil at heart. Besides these, however, there are other fruits that are coarse and easier to recognize. And Christians have this advantage that they can also publicly and practically discern and overthrow them, as the real and legitimate fruits of the doctrine and lies of the devil.
44. For every sect has always had one or more particular hobbies and articles which are manifestly wrong and can easily be discerned to be of the devil, who publicly teach, urge and defend them as right, certain and necessary to believe or to keep. For the spirit of lies cannot so con-
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ceal himself, but that he must at last put forth his claws, by which you can discern and observe the ravenous wolf. Of this you have an example and testimony in all the well known fanatics and false spirits; as in our time the Anabaptists, of whom it is manifest that they are wrong in their teaching concerning Christ, faith and the sacraments. They regard baptism as a common, naked, empty sign, despise the external spoken and written Word and Scripture, pretend to have special revelations independent of the witness of God’s Word. They disgrace and rend asunder holy wedlock, because they teach: a man may indeed leave his wife who is not of his faith, and take another, one or more. Again, they would make all property common, acknowledge no civil authority or government, nor approve of it, except what is of their special faith, etc.; as in former times the Manichean heretics also advocated the same theories.
45. Therefore, it must follow that such people come forth with gross errors, by which their spirit is easily discovered. For as they taught that there can be no civil authority except that which is holy and Christian (this means that of their own faith), by which they have already withdrawn all obedience, and claim the right and power to oppose the government, and even to overthrow it with violence and put themselves in its place, as Thomas Muenzer and the Muenster prophets for this reason publicly undertook to do. And because they desire property to be generally and equally distributed; again, because they forsake their wives and take others; from this it also follows that they might grab into the goods and possessions of other people, steal and rob whatever they wish and can. Again, that as often as they desire they can abandon their wives, take others and abandon them in turn, and thus carryon among themselves all debauchery, shame and vice. Behold, here you observe both, in doctrine and in life, there is nothing but evil, rotten, bad fruit, which cannot be hid, but must finally become public, so that the tree may be known by it.
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46. Fruit like this you will surely find as the result of all doctrine and belief, not of the pure Word of God. I will not speak here of Mohammed’s Koran, for he is entirely too gross with abominable, blasphemous and shameful lies, together with the permission of public murder, whoredom, debauchery, the dissolving of wedlock, without saying anything of all his other disgraceful abominations and deceptions. It would also take too long to relate the sorrowful fruits of all popery, but it is fully treated elsewhere.
47. I will omit the papal doctrines which are somewhat subtle, that they do not correctly teach the ten commandments, and out of what these require they have formed their own decrees, which before God no one is in duty bound to do, except those who would be perfect and do something special and superfluous, etc. In like manner they have taught nothing correctly of the Gospel and faith in Christ, which first of all must be known and urged in the churches, how hearts may possess true and certain comfort; but directly contrary to the faith and comfort of Christ, they have so misled the people that, if they already believed in Christ and did everything, nevertheless, they should and must still doubt concerning grace. Again, I will not speak of what public, shameful, un-Christian abomination and idolatry they carried on in their mass, the invocation of departed saints, indulgences, lies and frauds about purgatory; which are all evidently fruits by which the tree may indeed be known, for these are no sweet grapes or figs, but are mere sour, bitter late grapes, wild plums and berries.
48. But only observe the grossest doctrines they themselves cannot beautify with paint, how they proceed publicly and without shame against God’s Word and command, when they, for instance, declare the children free from the authority and obedience of their parents as soon as they only think of becoming priests, monks or nuns; when they against the will of their parents confirm the marriage vow or again dissolve it. In like manner they forbid young people to marry, whom they have enticed to become priests
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or to enter a cloister, and compel them to live without hope of marriage, and thereby have filled the world with disgraceful, unutterable debauchery, shame and vice, and have plunged souls into the bonds and destruction of the devil; therefore St. Paul also in 1 Tim. 4:1-3 because of such fruit condemns those forbidding to marry, and calls it the doctrine of devils.
49. What is still more shameful to hear in Christendom, they go to work and want to defend their shameless action with self-condemned consciences, and even at the present day they are bold to say that their public whoredom and scandalous life is not so bad that a poor priest should marry a wife so that he may not be compelled to live unchaste with an evil condemned conscience. Yes, all this they confirm besides by persecution, murder and bloodshed of poor, pious and harmless people, only because they marry, or celebrate the sacrament according to the institution of Christ, and do not all worship the lies and abominations of the Pope in opposition to God’s Word. Besides, in all this they claim to be doing right, and want to pass as obedient members and leaders of the Christian Church. And those who censure or oppose them, they curse and condemn, and command to be destroyed with fire and sword as the worst heretics.
50. Tell me, now, if these are not public, known fruits of the corrupt tree, which is the real Antichrist doctrine and government, the sediment of all the infernal poison of the devil? For what else can it be but the devil’s herd, who condemn and murder the people in the name of the Church for no other reason, than because they preach or confess and obey God’s Word? And yet they claim to be doing right! For God has not commanded to persecute and murder pious, armless people; but to praise, honor and treat them well, especially those who keep God’s Word and commandments. Without any doubt the Christian Church does and observes God’s Word. Wherefore it is an easy matter for every Christian to know and to judge what kind of spirits they are, and no great skill nor further ques-
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tions nor disputations are needed, if one only distinguishes the boasting or the name from the fruit.
51. We should answer for ourselves the cries and blasphemies of the Papists against our doctrine, which they desire to criticize as to its fruits from this Gospel and conclude: Because evil fruit is also seen among many of our people, therefore our doctrine is also false and wrong. But they call that evil fruit, because we will not, like they, obey the Pope, and observe all the diabolical nonsense of his decrees and the doctrines of monks, which are nothing but evil fruits of the rotten tree, mere human prattle, yes, the doctrine of devils, on account of which they persecute and would gladly murder us all; or wherever they can discover anything to show that among us also there are wicked rogues who do not live as they should, but rob, steal and commit adultery; or when some of our people who at first held to us and afterwards gave offense and produced factions and heresy.
52. True, Papists are unworthy of an answer from us on these things. For we have proved enough against them, that both their doctrine is wrong, and their life, which they regard as holiness, is only corrupt fruit, because it is against God’s Word. Besides they claim to have defended their public idolatry, lies and disgraceful life as right and virtuous. Wherefore, by this Gospel they are already condemned as a corrupt, useless tree along with their fruit. And we ‘should not suffer them, so publicly self-condemned, to judge our doctrine or its fruits, because they are not the judges who should or are able to do it. For wherever they as it were could censure us in the highest degree, they do no more than seek for the mote in our eyes, and do not want to see the beam in their own eyes.
53. On the contrary we can easily prove before the whole world, that our doctrine is not our own forged trifles or dreams, but the Scriptures and the plain Word of God. Ye also teach not to accept, believe or observe anything else as necessary unto salvation, From this the good fruits are also manifest, which harmonize with the doctrine, with
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our baptism and faith. For we claim and know that in baptism we are cleansed by the blood of Christ and receive the forgiveness of sins and the grace of God. Through such faith we also experience comfort and joy of conscience against the terrors of sin and death, and, God be praised, we see with our own eyes many pious Christians joyfully leave this world in this comfort and faith, and publicly bear witness to the same by their confession and death. This is surely a fruit of the Holy Spirit and of faith.
54. Moreover, we teach how everyone should live and behave in his earthly calling, according to the Word and commandment of God, that he should avoid sin, obey God, be chaste and patient, serve his neighbor and do good. Such a doctrine can in itself bring forth no corrupt fruit, and no one can justly be offended at it, and some are even thereby compelled to live a better life. That all do not live in harmony with it, and many among us are yet wicked, unthankful and false Christians, cannot be attributed to the Gospel; for it does not indeed allow of wickedness, but censures and opposes it. But the real cause of it is the devil, for this he has always done to the true Church and God’s children, and thus sows his tares among the good wheat. But because of this the good seed and its fruit, that is, the Word of God and true Christians, do not become evil. Just as a good apple tree does not become evil, because the noxious insects and caterpillars destroy some of its fruit. Otherwise you would have to censure and condemn the doctrine of Christ and the Apostles, because even among them there was a Judas, and many of their disciples became false Apostles and factious spirits, as St. Paul before had prophesied, 2 Tim. 3:4, that among themselves there would arise false teachers; and St. John in his first Epistle, 2, 19, confesses: “They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us.”
55. Therefore the Gospel is falsely blamed, because among some to whom it is preached factions and heresies arise,
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and many misuse it; and although we must endure such things among us, as even St. Paul was obliged to do in his churches, yet for all this we neither approve nor allow it; but punish and oppose it as much as possible, so as either to improve or put away from us everything that is against sound doctrine. This the Papists and other sects will not do, because they cannot. For their doctrine in itself is neither good nor honest, and for this reason can bring forth no good fruit. “Not everyone that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: but he that doeth the will of my Father who is in heaven.”
56. This is exactly what was just said, that it depends not upon boasting, and one should pay no attention to what men pretend with beautiful sacred names, of God, of Christ, of the kingdom of God, of the honor of God, the worship of God and the like. For all this is but to say: Lord, Lord! But you should give heed to what God himself says and requires. For whoever would enter the kingdom of heaven or the kingdom of God, must not only use the names and words, about which people can speak and boast; but he must also do what God wants done in his kingdom.
57. If we are to do his will, we must first know for a certainty what it is, and how to do it. This our own wisdom and thoughts do not teach, or all men, heathen and Turks, could do it as well, and every fanatical spirit would come and pretend that whatever pleases him was God’s will, just as the monks have hitherto taught us, it is God’s will which brings you into the kingdom of heaven that you wear a grey cap, and worship St. Christopher, Franciscus, Barbaras or others.
58. Therefore, we must in this case hear God’s Word alone, which reveals and shows plainly unto us, what the will of God the Father is. First, that he has sent his only begotten Son into the world, to reconcile us sinners unto God by his death, and without our merits to purify and sanctify us through his blood, and this he has proclaimed
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to everyone by the Gospel, and requires you to believe and accept it. As Christ himself declares the same in plain words, John 6:40: “And this is the will of my Father, that everyone that beholdeth the Son, and believeth on him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.”
59. In the next place, when we have received such grace and salvation, have been baptized into Christ and believe, his will is that we should afterwards live accordingly, obey God and do what is commanded us in the ten commandments, and everyone in his calling confess God’s Word, honor and support it, avoid and flee from sin, and be good, patient, chaste, modest, kind, faithful and true, etc.
60. This he will not only have preached or spoken by the mouth, but done in the heart and in the deed. Consequently, whoever neglects this or teaches, believes and does the contrary, should also know that he has not done God’s will, and is judged already, that he does not belong to the kingdom of heaven, because he is without faith and love. And it will not help him to boast of Christ as though he served him so faithfully, preached so much and did great wonders. On the other hand, if you earnestly do this will of God, cheerfully hear and believe God’s Word and live in his obedience, to honor him and benefit your neighbor; and although you should fall but rise again, and not continue impenitent, to defend your sins, to boast against God’s Word or maliciously to persecute your neighbor, then you can bravely and joyfully say before God: Lord, Lord, and comfort yourself with the kingdom of heaven which God has given you. Whether on this account the world reviles and condemns you or puts you under the ban in the name of the Christian Church, should not trouble you. For now you hear that God does not require or wish you to seek praise and a name when you say: Lord, Lord! But you are to seek the deed and fruit of him, who does the will of God. Then be directed according to this rule, and measure all doctrine and life with it which comes
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to you in the name and praise of God, if you desire not to be deceived.
61. Various and many spirits have come to myself, so that I may here confess to my own experience, they really tempted me with great, excellent words, to lead me in a different course, and at times presented it so plausible that I was almost brought to a stand, and ad I not been cautions, I would also have been misled. I could do nothing else in order to remain undeceived and remove such apparitions of the devil, than as the prophet David teaches, Ps.. 119:105: “Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and light unto my path.” Then I went to this light which teaches me what the will of God is, and compared it to these talkers and spiritual boasters, whether it harmonizes with the clear doctrine of the ten commandments and faith in Christ. When I found this was not the case, I immediately cast it away and bravely upon this admonition of Christ judged and condemned it as evil, useless fruit and a corrupt tree. Do thou likewise, and hold fast to the true standard by which all doctrine must be judged, which is God’s Word and command, then you can neither err nor fail, and can overthrow the boast and pretensions of all false spirits. For Christ by this sentence: Not he who saith: “Lord, Lord,” but he who does the will of my Father, directs and leads us alone to his Word, that we may know that those alone are good fruits who walk according to that Word.